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Mood Disorders

Mood Disorders

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Mood Disorders

Mood disorders, also known as affective disorders, are a category of mental health conditions that primarily affect a person’s emotional state and mood. These disorders can significantly impact a person’s thoughts, behaviour, and overall quality of life. Here are some common mood disorders:

  1. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): MDD, often referred to as depression, is characterised by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a loss of interest or pleasure in activities. Other symptoms may include changes in appetite and sleep patterns, low energy levels, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of self-harm or suicide.
  2. Bipolar Disorder: Bipolar disorder involves recurring episodes of mood swings between depressive episodes and manic or hypomanic episodes. Depressive episodes are similar to those experienced in MDD, while manic or hypomanic episodes are characterised by elevated mood, increased energy, impulsivity, and changes in sleep patterns and behaviour.
  3. Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD): PDD, previously known as dysthymia, is a chronic form of depression where individuals experience long-term, milder depressive symptoms for at least two years. PDD may also include periods of more severe depression.
  4. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): SAD is a subtype of depression that follows a seasonal pattern, with symptoms occurring during specific seasons, typically winter. It is thought to be associated with reduced exposure to sunlight and disruptions in the body’s internal clock.
  5. Anxiety and Depression: Anxiety disorders, such as generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder, often co-occur with depression and can contribute to the development of mood disorders.

Treatment for mood disorders may involve a combination of therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes. Common therapeutic approaches include cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviours, and interpersonal therapy (IPT), which focuses on improving interpersonal relationships. Medications, such as antidepressants or mood stabilisers, may be prescribed to manage symptoms. Additionally, self-care strategies, such as regular exercise, healthy sleep habits, stress management techniques, and support from loved ones, can be beneficial in managing mood disorders.

It’s important to note that mood disorders are complex conditions, and each individual may experience symptoms differently. If you or someone you know is struggling with a mood disorder, it is recommended to seek professional help from a mental health provider who can provide an accurate diagnosis and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

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